Maine has banned the use of Native American mascots in its public schools and colleges, making it the first state in the nation to fully outlaw the use of such images by educational institutions and athletic programs.
Gov. Janet T. Mills, a Democrat, signed “An Act to Ban Native American Mascots in All Public Schools” on Thursday. The legislation, which was passed unanimously, prohibits Maine’s public educational institutions from adopting a name, symbol or image related to a Native American tribe, person, custom or tradition for use as a mascot, logo or team name.
Maulian Dana, the tribal ambassador for the Penobscot Nation in Maine, said this week that the law, which will take effect this fall, “sends a message of truth and honor and respect.”
“It is part of a big picture of historical oppression of Indigenous people,” she said. “When you see people as less than people, you treat them accordingly. That actually points to the very core of it, is that they make us invisible and turn us into stereotypes.”
State Representative Benjamin Collings, a Democrat who sponsored the bill, said in a statement: “Our tribal communities laid the foundation of our state. They are people, not mascots.”
Maine has four federally recognized Native tribes, with about 15,000 people. Two decades ago, about 20 schools and colleges in the state had a mascot that referred to Native Americans in some way, such as “warrior,” “brave” or “redskin,” but over the years they were abandoned as the tribes pushed to have those references removed.
The state had been slowly working toward a full ban of such symbols, Ms. Dana said, but momentum increased this year. In March, the state’s Education Department urged schools not to use them, saying, “We encourage schools and communities to consider the impact of promoting symbols and stereotypes that marginalize individuals or groups of people.”
But without a state law, the department said, it was up to local authorities to decide.
Later that month, the school board in Skowhegan, the last town in the state whose public school still had a Native American mascot, voted to retire the symbol of its high school: an Indigenous man in a loincloth and feathers, kneeling next to a creek holding a spear over his head to fish. Some have protested that decision.
The National Congress of American Indians, a public education and advocacy group, said it applauded Maine for its new law and hoped other states would follow “on the right side of history.”
“The signing of this bill, the first of its kind in the United States, sets an example of a state government honoring the state’s tribes by passing meaningful legislation that promotes cultural diversity and awareness and signifies the state’s respect for all of its citizens,” the group said.
Although not as broad, similar steps have been taken by other states and educational institutions:
In 2012, Oregon’s Board of Education decided that all public schools must eliminate Native American team names and mascots or lose their funding. Gov. John Kitzhaber, a Democrat, signed a law in 2014 that allowed schools to use them only if the schools reached an agreement to do so with Oregon’s federally recognized tribes.
In Massachusetts, an act prohibiting the use of Native American mascots by public schools has been submitted to the Joint Committee on Education for a hearing.
California’s Racial Mascots Act has prohibited public schools from using “redskins” as a school or athletic team name, mascot or nickname since Jan. 1, 2017. But it came with exceptions: Schools could continue to use uniforms or materials with the name if they had been bought before that date.
Florida State University, whose mascot is the Seminoles, was one of 18 institutions that the N.C.A.A. in 2005 prohibited from using “mascots, nicknames or images deemed hostile or abusive in terms of race, ethnicity or national origin.” But the university was allowed to keep its mascot with approval from the 3,200-member Seminole Tribe of Florida.
Another of those institutions was the University of North Dakota, which dropped its Fighting Sioux nickname in 2012 in favor of the Fighting Hawks. The state of North Dakota has five federally recognized tribes and one Indian community at least partially within its borders, but there is no state law banning mascots. However, a new law protects the rights of Native American students to attach eagle feathers or plumes to their caps when they graduate.
The legislation went into effect immediately after Gov. Doug Burgum, a Republican, signed it in March — just in time for graduation.
“It is a blanket across the entire state so each school does not have to do the legwork and advocate,” said State Representative Ruth Buffalo, a Democrat who sponsored the bill. “Eagle feathers or eagle plumes attached to their caps honor their accomplishment. Warriors received eagle feathers for a great deed.”
The professional teams that use Native American mascots include the Washington Redskins, the Chicago Blackhawks and the Cleveland Indians.
Their names and logos have long faced especially strong opposition given their ubiquity in the teams’ home regions.
“There is no honor in being somebody’s mascot. Children grow up seeing themselves either as warriors or depicted on the back of somebody’s coat,” said Stephen Pevar, a staff lawyer at the American Civil Liberties Union. “It perpetuates racism. It is bigotry. It uses the stereotypes of someone for somebody’s personal gain.”
The Redskins’ name in particular has drawn harsh criticism. The N.C.A.I. says the name is a racial slur that refers to the bloody scalps of Native Americans that government bounty announcements called for in the 1800s.
But the term has also generated a linguistic debate about whether it is always meant as a slur. The management of the Redskins, an N.F.L. team owned by Daniel Snyder, says it is meant to be a tribute to the courage of Native Americans and insists that it will not be changed.
Those who engage in racial stereotyping may be unaware of the hurt they are causing, Mr. Pevar wrote in his book “The Rights of Indians and Tribes.” The American Psychological Association recommends the immediate retirement of Native American mascots and symbols, in part because they appear “to have a negative impact on the self-esteem of American Indian children.”
Some of the measures to restrict the symbols have not taken the form of outright abandonment.
Beginning this year, the Cleveland Indians’ uniforms no longer include the logo of Chief Wahoo: a grinning, red-faced caricature. But Major League Baseball guidelines say that the logo will continue to appear on some merchandise at certain outlets.B:
“【赛】【弥】【尔】，【在】【不】【在】？”【带】【着】【安】【娜】【一】【起】【回】【到】【命】【都】【的】【庄】【园】。 【出】【来】【迎】【接】【他】【的】【不】【是】【赛】【弥】【尔】，【而】【是】【叶】【卡】【捷】【琳】【娜】。 “【回】【来】【了】？” “【回】【来】【了】……【叶】，【赛】【弥】【尔】【在】【吗】？【我】【有】【点】【事】【情】【找】【她】【聊】【聊】。” “【赛】【弥】【尔】……【她】【有】【点】【事】【情】【出】【事】【了】，【好】【像】【是】【去】【找】【其】【他】【王】【者】【开】【会】【去】【了】。” “【赛】【弥】【尔】【说】【不】【会】【去】【很】【久】，【你】【先】【进】【来】【等】【一】【等】【吧】。”【说】
“【怎】【么】【回】【事】？”【杨】【希】【月】【的】【声】【音】【里】【充】【满】【了】【心】【焦】【和】【急】【切】。 “【之】【前】【不】【小】【心】【变】【异】【蚂】【蚁】【咬】【了】，【没】【一】【会】【儿】【就】【成】【这】【样】【了】。”【旁】【边】【另】【外】【一】【个】【跟】【少】【年】【差】【不】【多】【的】【小】【伙】【子】【带】【着】【一】【丝】【哭】【意】【说】【道】。 “【看】【着】【情】【况】，【变】【异】【蚂】【蚁】【确】【实】【有】【毒】。”【李】【志】【超】【结】【束】【了】【最】【后】【一】【只】【变】【异】【蚂】【蚁】【之】【后】【也】【发】【现】【了】【这】【边】【的】【情】【况】，【想】【到】【刚】【刚】【自】【己】【也】【差】【一】【点】【被】【蚂】【蚁】【咬】【到】，【一】【口】【凉】
2015【年】【冬】【天】，【村】【里】【发】【生】【了】【一】【件】【大】【事】，“【躺】【着】【赚】【钱】”【网】【倒】【闭】【了】，【只】【因】【参】【与】【群】【众】【较】【多】，【影】【响】【过】【大】，【官】【方】【正】【式】【发】【布】【了】【一】【份】【文】【件】，【提】【醒】【广】【大】【群】【众】，【明】【确】【说】【明】，【这】【种】【平】【台】【实】【质】【上】【就】【是】【一】【种】“【庞】【氏】【骗】【局】”，【涉】【嫌】【非】【法】【集】【资】，【请】【群】【众】【不】【要】【相】【信】。 【一】【夜】【之】【间】，【人】【们】【投】【入】【平】【台】【的】【钱】【再】【也】【提】【不】【出】【来】【了】，【全】【部】【不】【能】【返】【现】，【线】【下】【实】【体】【超】【市】【也】地下马报资料网站【我】【们】【蜂】【拥】【过】【去】，【婆】【婆】【满】【脸】【焦】【急】【的】【看】【着】【医】【生】【的】【脸】，【我】【紧】【紧】【的】【抓】【着】【许】【言】【的】【手】，【我】【们】【渴】【望】【的】【盯】【着】【医】【生】。 “【手】【术】【很】【顺】【利】。” 【听】【到】【这】【句】【话】，【我】【的】【心】【一】【下】【子】【活】【跃】【起】【来】，【太】【好】【了】，【医】【生】【的】【话】【就】【像】【是】【一】【剂】【定】【心】【丸】。 “【病】【人】【目】【前】【正】【在】【监】【护】【室】，【相】【信】【一】【天】【以】【后】【就】【可】【以】【出】【来】【了】。” 【医】【生】【走】【后】，【我】【紧】【紧】【的】【抱】【着】【许】【言】，【泪】【水】【无】【声】【的】【滑】
【鸿】【蒙】【诞】【生】【于】【鸿】【蒙】【空】【间】【之】【内】【无】【量】【量】【岁】【月】，【对】【整】【个】【鸿】【蒙】【空】【间】【可】【以】【说】【了】【如】【指】【掌】，【他】【很】【快】【圈】【定】【了】【一】【片】【鸿】【蒙】【灵】【气】【最】【浓】【郁】【的】【地】【方】，【然】【后】【一】【指】【点】【落】，【将】【这】【片】【区】【域】【和】【其】【他】【空】【间】【切】【割】【开】【来】，【借】【助】【鸿】【蒙】【金】【榜】【的】【力】【量】，【调】【整】【时】【间】【流】【速】。 【十】【亿】【倍】！ 【李】【长】【风】【静】【静】【的】【看】【着】【鸿】【蒙】【出】【手】，【当】【这】【片】【空】【间】【成】【型】，【他】【拱】【了】【拱】【手】，【道】【了】【声】“【多】【谢】”，【便】【大】【步】【向】
【很】【惭】【愧】，【隔】【了】【一】【年】【多】【时】【间】【才】【回】【来】。【说】【真】【的】，【现】【在】【我】【写】【下】【这】【些】【文】【字】【的】【时】【候】【都】【有】【种】【无】【地】【自】【容】【的】【感】【觉】。 【时】【间】【真】【的】【隔】【了】【太】【久】【了】，【久】【到】【我】【自】【己】【都】【有】【点】【恐】【惧】【登】【陆】【作】【者】【后】【台】。 【我】【怕】【看】【到】【你】【们】【的】【批】【评】，【我】【怕】【看】【到】【你】【们】【的】【催】【促】，【因】【为】【我】【不】【知】【道】【该】【怎】【么】【回】【应】【你】【们】。 【工】【作】【太】【忙】。 【这】【是】【真】【的】。 【这】【是】【我】【一】【直】【没】【敢】【开】【新】【书】【的】【原】【因】，